Forceps Delivery Injury

Birth-assisting tools have been commonplace during difficult deliveries for many decades. Although they are certainly beneficial when used appropriately, the percentage of birth injuries associated with these tools, in particular forceps, has been a cause for concern. Even though the statistics show that birth injuries due to forceps use is a real problem, physicians continue to use them, despite the chances of inflicting trauma on infants.

What are Forceps? How are They Used?

 A pair of forceps is a birth-assisting tool that closely resemble large salad tongs.  The open end of forceps are typically placed around infant’s head to help guide the baby out during the mother’s contractions.

Most physicians acknowledge that sometimes there is a risk of forceps delivery injury, but if there are other problems during labor and delivery, they may turn to forceps for assistance.

When Do Doctors Use Forceps?

The most common reason forceps are used happens when the mother is unable to push the baby out alone during delivery. This can happen for a variety of reasons including maternal exhaustion, a prolonged second stage of delivery, illness or infection, hemorrhage, or when drugs keep the mother from being able to push the baby out successfully.

Fetal factors that indicate the use of forceps include a breech delivery or a troublesome reading in the fetal heart tracing. Often these factors (both fetal and maternal) are time-emergent and doctors justify the use of forceps as an emergency dictates.

In almost all cases, forceps are not used unless there is a means to perform an emergency cesarean section surgery (C-section) should the use of forceps prove unsuccessful.

What are the Risks of Using Forceps?

When forceps are used, both mother and baby are at risk for injuries.

Maternal risks include:

  • Tears and lacerations in the lower genital tract area
  • Fecal and/or urinary continence
  • Perineum pain
  • Anemia
  • Bladder injuries
  • Urethra injuries

Infant risks include:

  • Facial palsy and facial injuries
  • Bruising and swelling on the head
  • Skull fractures
  • Seizures
  • Brain damage

What are the Symptoms of a Forceps Injury?

In most instances, the symptoms of a forceps injury are straightforward, such as lacerations or bruising.

Other symptoms of forceps injury can include a misshapen head, nerve damage, skull fractures, and hemorrhages (brain bleeds).

What Can the Symptoms Lead to?

You should take a forceps injury seriously. Be certain to get your baby’s head and brain checked for a number of related birth injuries that may pose serious health issues, including:  seizure disorders, strokes, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), and cerebral palsy.

Do Parents Have a Choice?

Physicians not only have the responsibility to ensure that you and your infant are as safe as possible during a forceps procedure, but they are also obligated to inform you of the risks. It’s a common misconception that parents do not have a choice of the physicians using forceps or not, but if you feel uncomfortable, you can always recommend to forgo it.